A brief, easily administered, and simply scored psychological test designed to screen for mental impairment, especially in the elderly, first published by the US psychiatrists Marshal F(rank) Folstein (born 1941), Susan Folstein (born 1944), and Paul R(odney) McHugh (born 1931) in the Journal of Psychiatric Research in 1975. It consists of the following 11 questions: What is the year, season, month, date, day of the week? (5 points). Where are we (state/ country, county/province, city, hospital/ place, floor/street)? (5 points). Remember these and name them after me: apple, penny, table (3 points). Subtract 7 from 100, then subtract 7 from the answer, and so on five times, or spell the word world backwards (5 points). What are the three words I asked you to remember earlier? (3 points). Name these (pointing to a watch and a pen) (2 points). Repeat the following exactly: No ifs, ands, or buts (1 point). Take this sheet of paper in your right hand, use both hands to fold it in half, and then put it on the floor (3 points). Read and follow the command on this paper: CLOSE YOUR EYES (1 point). Write down any sentence of your choice (1 point). Copy this diagram (two overlapping pentagons) (1 point). The test is sensitive in detecting moderate or severe dementia and predicting the development of Alzheimer's disease, scores below 21 being associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Out of a maximum possible score of 30, less than 24 is considered abnormal, 18–23 indicates mild cognitive impairment, and less than 18 severe dementia. Also called the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination. Compare mental status examination. MMSE abbrev.