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The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, one of the most widely used paper-and-pencil tests of personality, especially in the US, consisting of 566 (originally 504, later 550) statements, including 16 that are repeated, to which the respondent answers True or mostly true (T), False or not usually true (F), or Cannot say (?), typical items being similar to the following: I feel contented most of the time; I have never had a fainting spell, and I believe I am cursed. The instrument provides scores on 10 clinical scales: Hypochondriasis (Hs), Depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), Psychopathic deviate (Pd), Masculinity-femininity (Mf), Paranoia (Pa), Psychasthenia (Pt), Schizophrenia (Sc), Hypomania (Ma), and Social introversion (Si). In addition there are four validity (test-taking attitude) scales: a score for the number of questions left unanswered (?); a Lie scale (L) containing items describing socially desirable but unlikely behaviour, such as I always tell the truth (True); an Infrequency scale (F) of items answered in the keyed direction by ten per cent or less of normal people, such as I see things, animals, or people around me that others do not see (True); and a Correction factor (K) reflecting defensiveness in admitting to problems, containing items such as At times I feel like swearing (False). Numerous other scales have been derived from the MMPI test items. The MMPI was developed and first published in 1942 by the US clinical psychologist Starke Rosecrans Hathaway (1903–84) and the US neuropsychiatrist John Charnley McKinley (1891–1950); a revised version, called MMPI-2, was issued in 1989.

Subjects: Psychology.

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