Later prehistoric farming communities living in Arizona and New Mexico, North America, in the period c.ad 250–1450. Characterized by distinctive red‐on‐brown and polished red ceramics, early Mogollon settlements were small villages with few houses and large associated ceremonial complexes. Many were sites on low hills. After c.ad 700 settlements were more commonly on low‐lying fertile ground. Pit‐houses with a rectangular outline and entry ramp were typical and some of the ceremonial structures had entrances in their flat roofs. Maize, beans, and squash was cultivated, although there was always some reliance on hunting and gathering. By the end of the Mogollon Tradition multi‐roomed houses constructed above ground were common, some with hundreds of rooms presaging the Pueblo traditions.