Reformist thinker and journalist. Born in Sumatra, lived in Mecca, and studied at al-Azhar University, Cairo. Traveled between Malaya, Riau-Lingga, Sumatra, and the Middle East as religious teacher and scholar. Settled permanently in Malaya in 1906. Influenced by ideas of the Egyptian Wahhabi movement of the early nineteenth century. Identified with the reformist movement in Malaya known as Kaum Muda (Young Faction). Known for his journalistic writings as well as his editorship of the journal Al-imam (1906) and the newspaper Saudara (1934). Both publications criticized the backwardness of Malay society and advocated education as a means to achieve progress.