(b. 31 Dec. 1905, d. 3 Oct. 1975).
Prime Minister of France 1956–7 Son of a textile worker, he joined the Socialist Party in 1923 and became a teacher in Arras. He became a Résistance leader in World War II, which he survived despite repeated interrogations by the German Gestapo. In 1944 he became the government representative in liberated northern France and Mayor of Arras. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1945, he served as leader of his party (1946–69). He joined a number of governments and headed the longest-lived coalition government in the history of the Fourth Republic, which lasted sixteen months. During this time, despite his desire to bring peace to Algeria, the unrest there escalated, while he also allowed himself to become involved in the Suez Crisis.