The interactions between money, place, and space, ranging from the global scale (uneven development, capitalism, circuits of capital), to regional and local, such as variations in access to financial services. Of considerable interest is the continued predominance, despite time–space compression, of certain financial centres, such as Tokyo New York, Frankfurt, London, and Amsterdam; see Faulconbridge (2007) Growth & Change 38, 2 on the changing landscape of European financial centres.
‘Money is not just an economic entity, a store of value, a means of exchange, or even a “commodity” traded or speculated on for its own sake; it is also a social relation’ (Martin (1999) in Stuart Corbridge). ‘Value can be thought of as generated through relations and things which, via the material and social practices of the economy (production, exchange and consumption), come to be regarded as socially useful, helpful, uplifting or, more narrowly but generally, as fundamental to everyday life going on “as normal”. These flows encompass the exchange of value embodied in products and may involve the exchange of money for work or the capacity to work, which could lead to an augmentation of future production and/or consumption’ (Hudson (2008) J. Econ. Geog. 8, 3).
B. Cohen (1998) argues that the globalization of money has undermined the power of sovereign nation-states: ‘a system predicated upon the ability to draw a line between the “inside” of the nation state and the “outside” of the international system has been shattered by the growing frequency and volume of monetary flows.’ Lee (2002) PHG26, 3 argues that the decision-makers in specialized investment houses and banks, all too ready to shift hot money around the globe, construct geographies through the intersection of their assessments of internal conditions in emerging markets and their power to engage with them. Lee did not forecast the resultant crash into global depression. Unfortunately.
There is surprisingly little on fraud in the geographical literature. ID Analytics examine how US identity fraud rates vary by geography, finding that the highest rates of identity fraud occur in New York state, followed by California, Nevada, Arizona, and Illinois, while the least risky states tend to be in the upper Midwest and upper New England.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.