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From the Arabic mausim meaning ‘season’, a seasonal change of wind direction and properties associated with widespread temperature changes over land and water in the subtropics. Seasonal alternations of pressure systems together with shifting upper wind patterns and jet streams produce seasonal winds, called ‘monsoon winds’. The climate of the Indian subcontinent is especially characterized by the monsoon, where a distinct rainy season occurs in the south-westerly monsoon. Other major areas of monsoons are eastern and south-eastern Asia, the west African coast (latitude 5–15° N) and northern Australia.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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