Bernardo Morando

(c. 1540)

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(b Padua, c. 1540; d Zamość, 1600–01). Italian architect, active in Poland. He is first mentioned in Poland in 1569 as the architect who continued the extension of the Royal Castle in Warsaw. He visited France between 1573 and c. 1575 and then entered the service of Chancellor Jan Zamoyski as designer and builder. In 1578 Zamoyski commissioned him to plan the new town of Zamość, which was founded on 3 April 1580, and which took some 20 years to complete. One of the finest Renaissance urban schemes in northern Europe, it was the forerunner of a number of Polish town centres that were laid out on a rectangular grid plan on the estates of noblemen in accordance with the principles expounded in such Italian treatises as Pietro Cataneo's I quattro primi libri dell'architettura (Venice, 1554; for further discussion of the urban planning see Zamość). Morando also designed many of the principal buildings at Zamość, including the collegiate church, university (the academy), town hall, standard tenement blocks and bastion fortification gateways (mostly rebuilt in the second quarter of the 17th century and first half of the 19th); he endowed these buildings with the forms of early classicizing Venetian Mannerism, current some 50 years previously and mainly derived from Giovanni Maria Falconetto (1468–1535) and Michele Sanmicheli (c. 1487–1559). He also borrowed ideas from Sebastiano Serlio's treatise. The most outstanding of his works in Zamość is the collegiate church (1587–98 and later; elevations altered c. 1820). It is an Italianate basilica with a five-bay nave (vaulted after 1613), aisles and side chapels. The lower, polygonal choir features a coffered vault. The Corinthian order is used to articulate the nave, with Doric in the aisles and pilasters in the chapels. Light and dark elements are alternated in a Mannerist way, while the regular articulation of the orders ensures a harmonious effect. Morando's work greatly influenced the Italian architects in Lwów (now Lviv), and through them the south-east regions of Poland (now the Ukraine).

From The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Renaissance Art.

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