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Were provincial rulers in the Gaelic kingdom of Scotland from the 10th to the 12th cents. They raised the men of their province for the defence of the kingdom, collected tribute from the province's peasants, and administered justice, assisted by the lawman of the province. Mormaers are first mentioned in 918, soon after the emergence of the new kingdom of the Scots. In the 12th cent., chiefly by virtue of adopting primogeniture and ‘military feudalism’, mormaers developed into provincial earls.

Subjects: British History.

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