'Morpholinos' can also refer to...



morpholino antisense oligonucleotide

morpholino antisense oligonucleotide

AMOD: a morpholino oligonucleotide selection tool

Lessons from morpholino-based screening in zebrafish

Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers suppress mutant huntingtin expression and attenuate neurotoxicity

Morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligonucleotides in zebrafish: A recipe for functional genomics?

Manipulation of gene expression in zebrafish using caged circular morpholino oligomers

Promotion of triplex formation by morpholino modification: thermodynamic and kinetic studies

Antisense peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer conjugate: dose–response in mice infected with Escherichia coli

Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer inhibits viability of Escherichia coli in pure culture and in mouse peritonitis

Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Targeted to an Essential Gene Inhibit Burkholderia cepacia Complex

Long-term improvement in mdx cardiomyopathy after therapy with peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers†

Exon skipping with morpholino oligomers: new treatment option for cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting intronic repressor Element1 improve phenotype in SMA mouse models

A single administration of morpholino antisense oligomer rescues spinal muscular atrophy in mouse

Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide induced dystrophin exon 23 skipping in mdx mouse muscle

Triplex formation by morpholino oligodeoxyribonucleotides in the HER-2/neu promoter requires the pyrimidine motif


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Synthetic antisense oligomers (illustrated below) that are used to functionally inactivate specific genes. The genetic bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) are each attached to morpholine rings, and these are linked in a specific order by non-ionic phosphorodiamidate moieties. In spite of its altered backbone, a Morpholino still binds by Watson-Crick base-pairing to sequences of polynucleotides that have complementary base sequences. Since Morpholinos are not negatively charged, they are less likely to interact non-selectively with charged proteins found within cells. Morpholino-RNA hybrids are not substrates for ribonuclease H (q.v.), and Morpholino oligomers are not attacked by various nucleases commonly found in cells. Because of these properties, Morpholinos are routinely used for generating mutant phenotypes. See Chronology, 1997, Summerton and Weller; antisense RNA (asRNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), morphants, RNA interference (RNAi).

Morpholinos Illustration by Jon D. Moulton, Gene Tools, LLC, Philomath, OR. Reproduced with his permission.

Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.

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