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Dealings. Refers to commercial and civil acts or dealings under Islamic law. Islamic law divides all legal acts into either ibadat or muamalat. Ibadat are acts of ritual worship such as prayer or fasting, and muamalat are acts involving interaction and exchange among people such as sales and sureties. The distinction is important because the principle in all matters involving ibadat is that they are not susceptible to innovations or change (ittiba). In muamalat, however, there is considerably more room to develop and change the law to facilitate human interaction and promote justice. There is disagreement among Muslim jurists on whether certain legal acts, such as marriage or divorce, fall under the category of muamalat or ibadat.

Subjects: Islam.

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