(b Darmstadt, 1859; d Stuttgart, 1940).
Ger. conductor and pianist. Chorus master Zurich, then posts as opera cond. at Salzburg, Brno, and Graz. Cond., Deutsches Landestheater, Prague, 1886. Cond. first Moscow and St Petersburg perfs. of The Ring, 1889. Cond. Berlin Opera 1892–1912 (chief cond. from 1908). CG London 1899. Bayreuth 1901–30. Joint cond. Vienna PO 1903–6. Cond. Boston SO 1906–8, becoming chief cond. 1912–18. Outcry against him when USA entered war led to his internment. Cond. Hamburg PO 1922–33. Salzburg Fest. 1925.