was authorized as a journalist by the Rump Parliament in 1659, in which year he started The Parliamentary Intelligencer and Mercurius Publicus. He became the most famous of the 17th‐cent. journalists. His newsletters recording court and parliamentary records were sent out twice weekly to subscribers from his London office. One of his principal rivals was L'Estrange, whose papers, however, he drove from the field. In 1665 he started the Oxford Gazette. See also gazette and newspapers, origins of.