Dynasty of Macedonian Ottoman origin that reigned in Egypt from 1805 until 1952. Founded by Muhammad Ali (d. 1849). Supported by religious scholars of al-Azhar University. Responsible for major modernization and development programs and importation of European advisers to modernize the army, schools, technology and infrastructure, and bureaucracy. Although Egypt remained technically part of the Ottoman Empire, it came under de facto British control after 1882. The dynasty was overthrown in a military coup in 1952.