Type of Sufi order that bases its authority on assimilation of the spirituality of the Prophet Muhammad, includng visions of the Prophet. The term was first used by the Moroccan Jazuliyyah Shaykh Abdullah Ghazwani (d. 1529). Such tariqahs were most common in the early modern period and include the orders of Khwaja Mir Dard of Delhi (d. 1785), Sayyid Ahmad Reza Khan Barelwi in India (d. 1831), the Tijanis, and tariqahs in the tradition of Ahmad ibn Idris (such as the Sanusi). Mehmed Birgewi (d. 1573), an Ottoman scholar, used the term for his program of religious reform. In earlier periods, the term also applied to some extremist Shii subsects.