philanthropist and preacher. When a student at Halle in 1825, he experienced a religious conversion. Moving to Teignmouth in 1830, he associated himself with the Plymouth Brethren. He became a local preacher, abolished pew rents, refused a salary, and supported himself with offerings from his followers. In 1832 he moved to Bristol. Here he devoted himself to the care of orphan children, again relying on voluntary offerings. At the age of 70 he set out on a seventeen-year preaching mission to Europe, India, Australia, and China.