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Munich Putsch


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Adolf Hitler (1889—1945)

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Weimar Republic

Rudolf Hess (1894—1987) German Nazi politician, deputy leader of the Nazi Party 1934–41

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(8 November 1923)

An abortive rebellion by German Nazis. In a beer-hall in Munich a meeting of right-wing politicians, who had gathered to denounce the Weimar Republic and to call for the restitution of the Bavarian monarchy, was interrupted by a group of Nazi Party members led by Adolf Hitler. In a fierce speech Hitler won support for a plan to ‘march on Berlin’. and there install the right-wing military leader General Ludendorff as dictator. With a unit of Brownshirts (SA), he kidnapped the leader of the Bavarian government and declared a revolution. Next day a march on the centre of Munich by some 3,000 Nazis was met by police gunfire, 16 demonstrators and three policemen being killed in the riot that followed. Many were arrested. Ludendorff was released, but Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison, of which he served only nine months. During this period he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and manifesto Mein Kampf (1925) to his fellow prisoner, Rudolf Hess.

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