(b Munkács [now Mukacheve, Ukraine], 20 Feb. 1844; d Endenich, nr. Bonn, 1 May 1900).
Hungarian painter. After training in Budapest, Munich, and Düsseldorf, he lived mainly in Paris. He had a resounding early success when he won a gold medal at the 1870 Salon with the Last Day of a Condemned Man (NG, Budapest) and achieved an international reputation with Milton and his Daughters (1877–8, New York Public Lib.). These theatrical costume pieces were enormously popular with rich collectors and Munkácsy became one of the wealthiest artists of his day. However, his best works are now considered to be his landscapes, in which although he did not paint out of doors, he continued the tradition of the Barbizon School. He despised the Impressionists, but his work is often very free in handling. Munkácsy is generally regarded as Hungary's greatest painter; appropriately the best collection of his work is in the National Gallery in Budapest.