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Introduction. Refers to the lengthy introduction to the multivolume philosophical history of civilization, Kitb al-ibar, by Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406). The introduction explores human civilization in general and Bedouin civilization in particular, and investigates the basic kinds of political associations, the characteristics of sedentary civilization, the arts and crafts by which humans gain their livelihoods, and the different human sciences. Considered a forerunner of the modern discipline of historiography.

Subjects: Islam — Literature.

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