Murad II

(c. 1403—1451)

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(c. 1403–51)

Ottoman sultan (1421–51). He overcame early opposition to his claim to the throne and, after significant reverses, routed a Hungarian-led “crusade” at the Battle of Varna and the second Battle of Kosovo (1448). He also made the Janissaries a basic pillar of the Ottoman state.

Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500).

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