Overview

Muscles of the head and neck


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MuscleOriginInsertionNerve supplyFunction

Auricularis – anteriorLateral part of galea aponeurotica.Anterior part of helix of auricle.Facial n.Pulls auricle upwards and anteriorly.

Auricularis – posteriorLateral part of mastoid process.Cranial surface of the auricle.Facial n.Pulls auricle posteriorly.

Auricularis – superiorLateral part of galea aponeurotica.Cranial surface of the auricle.Facial n.Pulls the auricle upwards and backwards.

BuccinatorPosterior alveolar process of maxilla. Posterior alveolar process of mandible. The pterygomandibular raphe.Fibres of the orbicularis oris.Buccal branch of facial n.Compresses the cheek(s) against the teeth and closes the lips. It is a secondary muscle of mastication.

Caninus see Levator anguli oris

Chondroglossus (Ceratoglossus)Medial side and base of lesser horn of hyoid.Tongue between hyoglossus and genioglossus.Hypoglossal n.As hyoglossus.

Compressor narisMaxillaPasses upwards and medially towards the bridge of the nose.Facial n.Compresses vestibule of nasal cavity.

Corrugator superciliiMedial part of superciliary arch.Skin of medial eyebrow.Temporal branch of facial n.Draws eyebrows medially.

Corrugator superciliiThe superciliary arch on the frontal bone just above the nose.Skin of the medial portion of the eyebrows above the middle of the orbital arch.Zygomatic branch of facial n.Pulls the eyebrows downward and medially producing vertical wrinkles on the forehead (frowning).

Depressor anguli orisOblique line of the mandible.Skin at the angle of the mouth.Facial n.Pulls down the angle of the mouth. A muscle of facial expression associated with frowning.

Depressor labii inferiorisOblique line of the mandible, between symphysis and mental foramen.Skin of lower lip blending with the orbicularis oris.Mandibular branch of facial n.Pulls the lower lip downward and laterally. A muscle of facial expression.

Depressor septi nasiMaxilla above the central incisor.Nasal septum.Facial n.Widens the nasal aperture.

DigastricAnterior belly: digastric fossa on the internal surface of the mandible. Posterior belly: mastoid process of temporal bone.Lateral aspect of the body of hyoid bone by a pulley tendon.Posterior belly: facial n. (CN VII).

Anterior belly: mylohyoid n. (CN V).When the hyoid is held in place (by the infrahyoid muscles), it will tend to depress the mandible (open the mouth).

Dilator narisMaxillaCartilaginous alar of nose.Facial nerve.Widens the nasal apertures.

EpicraniusMuscle of the scalp made of frontal and occipital bellies joined by the membranous galea aponeurotica. See frontalis and occipitalis.

Frontalis (frontal belly of occipitofrontalis)Galea aponeurosis covering the upper part of the cranium, anterior to the coronal suture.Skin above the eyes and nose.Temporal branch of facial nerve.Draws back the scalp to raise the eyebrows and wrinkle the brow.

GenioglossusInner surface of the mandible near the symphysis (superior part of mental spine).Hyoid bone and underside of the tongue.Hypoglossal n.Raises the hyoid bone, depresses and protrudes the tongue.

GeniohyoidInner surface of the mandible from the inferior mental spine on the back of the symphysis menti.Anterior surface of the body of the hyoid bone.Branch from C1 (via the hypoglossal nerve).Elevates the tongue, depresses the mandible and works in conjunction with the mylohyoid and digastric muscles.

HyoglossusThe side of the body and the greater cornu of the hyoid bone.Base and sides of the tongue.Hypoglossal n.Depresses the sides of the tongue. It is important in singing.

Inferior constrictorOblique line and inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage to cricoid cartilage.Posterior pharyngeal raphe.Pharyngeal plexus.Functions in swallowing.

Inferior obliqueOrbital surface of maxilla lateral to the lacrimal groove.Lower lateral quadrant of the posterior half of the sclera of the eye.Occulomotor n.Elevates, laterally rotates, and abducts the eye.

Intrinsic muscles of the tongueWithin the tongue.Within the tongue.Hyoglossal n.Superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse and vertical muscles change the shape of the tongue.

Levator anguli orisAnterior surface of maxilla below the infraorbital foramen.Angle of the mouth.Buccal branch of facial n.Lifts the angle(s) of the mouth (as in smiling).

Levator labii superiorisMedial half of infraorbital margin.Skin and muscles of upper lip.Buccal branch of facial n.Elevates and everts the upper lip.

Levator labii superioris alaeque nasiFrontal process of maxilla.Upper lip muscles and skin of nasal cartilage.Buccal branch of facial n.Elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils.

Levator palpebrae superiorisInferior aspect of the lesser wing of sphenoid just above the optic foramen.The skin of the upper eyelid and the superior tarsal plate.Occulomotor n. and sympathetic innervation.Elevates and retracts the upper eyelid.

Levator veli palatiniApex of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the medial rim of the cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube.Aponeurosis of soft palate.Pharyngeal branch of vagus n. with its motor fibres from the accessory n.Raises, retracts and laterally deviates the soft palate. It may open the pharyngotympanic tube on swallowing.

Longus capitisAnterior tubercles of third to sixth vertebrae.Basilar part of the occipital bone.Ventral rami of C1–C3.Flexes the head.

Longus colliAnterior surface of first cervical to third thoracic vertebrae.Bodies and transverse process of cervical vertebrae.Ventral rami C2–C6.Flexes neck and rotates head to opposite side

MasseterSuperficial part: zygomatic process of the maxilla and the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. Intermediate part: inner surface of the zygomatic arch.

Deep part: Posterior aspect of inferior border of zygomatic arch.Superficial: angle of mandible and lateral surface of mandibular ramus.

Intermediate: ramus of mandible.

Deep: superior ramus of mandible and coronoid process of mandible.Masseteric n. V3.Elevates the mandible (clenching the teeth). It may deviate the mandible to the opposite side of contraction.

MentalisIncisive fossa on the anterior aspect of the mandible.Skin of the chin.Mandibular branch of the facial n.Protrudes lower lip and elevates and wrinkles the skin of the chin.

Middle constrictorLesser horn of the hyoid, stylohyoid ligament, greater horn of hyoid.Posterior pharyngeal raphe.Pharyngeal plexus.Functions in swallowing.

Musculus uvulaePosterior nasal spine of palatine bones, palatine aponeurosis.Mucous membrane.Vagus nerve (pharyngeal plexus).Contracts and elevates uvula.

MylohyoidThe inner surface of mandible along the mylohyoid line.Anterior three quarters: midline raphe. Posterior quarter: upper border of body of hyoid bone.Mylohyoid n. V3.Elevates hyoid bone, supports and raises the floor of the mouth. It aids in mastication and swallowing.

NasalisAlar (dilator naris) and transverse (compressor naris) parts.

See dilator naris and compressor naris.

Oblique capitis inferiorSpine and lamina of axis.Transverse process of atlas.Suboccipital nerve (C1).Rotates head to same side on the axis.

Oblique capitis superiorTransverse process of atlas.Between superior and inferior nuchal lines.Suboccipital nerve (C1).Extends and rotates head on the axis.

Occipitofrontalis see Epicranius

Occipitalis: Occipital belly of occipitofrontalisLateral two thirds of superior nuchal line of the occipital bone and from the mastoid part of the temporal bone.Galea aponeurosis, over the occipital bone.Posterior auricular branch of facial n.Draws back the scalp to raise the eyebrows and wrinkle the brow.

OmohyoidSuperior scapular border medial to the suprascapular notch and the suprascapular ligament.Inferior border of hyoid bone (via a fascial sling attached to the medial end of the clavicle).The upper part from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis and the lower part from the inferior root of the ansa cervicalis.Depresses, retracts, and stabilizes the hyoid bone and larynx.

Orbicularis oculiOval sheet of muscle. Lacrimal portion: lacrimal crest of lacrimal bone.

Orbital portion: medial orbital margin between supraorbital notch and infraorbital foramen.

Palpebral portion: medial palpebral ligament.Circumferentially around orbit meeting at the lateral palpebral raphe.Temporal and zygomatic branches of facial n.Sphincter of the eyelids. Closes the eyelids and aids the passage and drainage of tears dilating the lacrimal sac and spreads lacrimal secretions.

Orbicularis orisNear the midline on the anterior surface of the maxilla and mandible and modiolus at the angle of the mouth. Receives deep fibres from buccinator m. It has a marginal and labial part.Circumferentially around mouth. It merges with other muscles.Buccal branches of facial n.Sphincter of the mouth. Closes and protrudes the lips. It narrows the orifice of the mouth.

PalatoglossusSoft palate and pharyngotympanic tube.Posterolateral part of the tongue.Pharyngeal branch of vagus n. with its motor fibres from the accessory n.Raises tongue, constricts the anterior fauces and aids the initiation of swallowing.

PalatopharyngeusSoft palate and pharyngotympanic tube.Aponeurosis of pharynx and the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage.Accessory n. via pharyngeal plexus.Depresses the soft palate, narrows the fauces, elevates the pharynx and larynx and aids the process of swallowing.

PlatysmaSubcutaneous skin over the neck and the upper lateral part of the chest.Inferior border of mandible and the skin over the lower face and the angle of the mouth.Cervical branch of facial n.Depresses mandible and lower lip and tenses and wrinkles the skin over the neck.

ProcerusLower part of nasal bone and lateral nasal cartilages.Skin of lower forehead between eyebrows and mixes with frontalis.Superior buccal branch of facial n.Draws down medial angle of eyebrows.

Pterygoid – lateralSuperior (upper) head: lateral surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

Inferior (lower) head: lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate.Neck of the mandibular condyle and the articular disk of the TMJ.Lateral pterygoid n. V3.Moves the mandible to the opposite side of contraction during chewing. The inferior head opens the mouth by protruding the mandible.

The superior head closes the mouth by elevating the mandible.

Pterygoid – medialDeep head: the medial side of the lateral pterygoid plate and the fossa between the medial and lateral plates. Superficial head: tuberosity of maxilla and the pyramidal process of the palatine bone.Inner surface of mandibular ramus and the angle of the mandible.Medial pterygoid n. V3.Elevates the mandible (clenches the teeth) and can protrude move the mandible from side to side in combination with the lateral pterygoid muscle.

Rectus – inferiorCommon annular tendon from the body and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and the margins of the optic canal.Posterior to the sclerocorneal junction (each muscle inserting along its own directional axis).Inferior division of occulomotor n.Depresses, laterally rotates and adducts the eye.

Rectus – lateralCommon annular tendon which comes of the body and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and the margins of the optic canal.Medial sclera anterior to the equator of the eyeball (each muscle inserting along its own directional axis).Abducens n.Abducts the eye.

Rectus – medialCommon annular tendon (tendinous ring) from the body and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and the margins of the optic canal.Medial sclera anterior to the equator of the eyeball (each muscle inserting along its own directional axis).Inferior division of the occulomotor n.Adducts the eye.

Rectus – superiorCommon annular tendon (tendinous ring) from the body and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and the margins of the optic canal.Superior sclera anterior to the equator of the eyeball (each muscle inserting along its own directional axis).Superior division of occulomotor n.Elevates, medially rotates and adducts the eye.

Rectus capitis anteriorLateral mass and root of transverse process of atlas.Basilar process of occipital bone anterior to foramen magnum.Ventral rami of C1 and C2.Flexes head.

Rectus capitis lateralisTransverse process of atlas.Jugular process of occipital bone.Ventral rami of C1 and C2.Flexes head to side.

Rectus capitis posterior majorSpinous process of axis.Inferior nuchal line.Suboccipital nerve (C1).Extends and rotates head to same side.

Rectus capitis posterior minorPosterior arch of the atlas.Inferior nuchal line.Suboccipital nerve (C1).Extends head.

RisoriusDeep fascia of the face and parotid gland.Skin and modiolus at the angle of the mouth.Buccal branch of facial n.Retracts the mouth laterally (as in smiling).

SalpingopharyngeusInferior surface of auditory tube.Blends with palatopharyngeus.Pharyngeal plexus.Elevator of the pharynx.

Scalene (scalenus)Anterior scalene: anterior tubercle of transverse processes third to sixth cervical vertebrae.

Middle scalene: posterior tubercle of transverse processes second to seventh cervical vertebrae.

Posterior scalene: posterior tubercle of transverse processes fourth to sixth cervical vertebrae.Anterior scalene: scalene tubercle of first rib.

Middle scalene: upper surface of first rib.

Posterior scalene: second rib.Anterior scalene: Ventral rami C4–C6.

Middle scalene: Ventral rami C3–C8.

Posterior scalene: Ventral rami C5–C8.Flexion, lateral rotation and functions as accessory respiratory muscles.

StapediusPyramidal eminence.Posterior surface of neck of stapes.Facial nerve.Protective dampening of sound vibrations.

SternocleidomastoidAnterior and superior part of the manubrium of sternum and medial third of the clavicle.Lateral aspect of mastoid process of temporal bone and anterior half of superior nuchal spine.Motor supply is from the spinal accessory n. and sensory supply is from the ventral rami of C2.Rotates the head to the side opposite to the muscle contracting. It laterally flexes to the contracted side. Bilaterally it flexes the neck and protracts the head.

SternohyoidPosterior aspect of the manubrium and the sternal end of the clavicle.Inferior border of the body of the hyoid bone.The upper part from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis and the lower part from the inferior root of the ansa cervicalis.Depresses hyoid bone and larynx.

SternothyroidPosterior aspect of manubrium.Oblique line of thyroid cartilage.The upper part from the superior root of the ansa cervicalis and the lower part from the inferior root of the ansa cervicalis.Depresses hyoid bone and larynx.

StyloglossusAnterior surface and apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone and the upper quarter of the stylohyoid.Sides of the tongue.Hypoglossal n.Raises and retracts the tongue. It aids the initiation of swallowing.

StylohyoidBase of styloid process of the temporal bone.Lateral margin of hyoid bone.Mandibular branch of the facial n.Raises and retracts the hyoid bone. It aids swallowing and elevates the larynx.

StylopharyngeusMedial side of the styloid process.Passing between the superior and middle constrictor muscles it blends with the muscles of pharynx.Glossopharyngeal n.Elevator of the pharynx.

Superior constrictorPterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe and end of the mylohyoid line, tongue.Posterior pharyngeal raphe and pharyngeal tubercle.Pharyngeal plexus.Functions in swallowing.

Superior obliqueBody of sphenoid.Upper lateral quadrant of the posterior half of the sclera (via the trochlea, as a pulley).Trochlear n.Depresses, medially rotates, and adducts the eye.

TemporalisTemporal fossa between the inferior temporal line and the infratemporal crest.Medial surface, apex and anterior border of the coronoid process, and anterior border of the ramus of the mandible.Deep temporal branches of the anterior division of the mandibular n. division of the trigeminal.Retracts the protruded mandible and elevates it (closes the mouth).

TemporoparietalisAponeurosis above the auricularis.Galea aponeurotica.Facial nerve.Tenses the galea.

Tensor tympaniGreater wing of sphenoid and length of the auditory tube in its own canal.Handle of the malleus.Trigeminal nerve.Protective dampening of sound vibrations.

Tensor veli palatiniScaphoid fossa of sphenoid bone and cartilage of pharyngotympanic tube.Aponeurosis of soft palate (via a pulley of the pterygoid hamulus).Mandibular division of the trigeminal n.Contracts and tenses the soft palate and opens the pharyngotympanic tube.

ThyrohyoidOblique line of thyroid cartilage.Lower border of great horn of hyoid bone.Cervical plexus via Hypoglossal n.Depresses hyoid bone or raises larynx.

Zygomaticus majorAnterior surface of the zygomatic bone anterior to the zygomatic-temporal suture.Modiolus at the angle of the mouth.Buccal branch of facial n.Lifts and draws back the angle(s) of the mouth (as in smiling).

Zygomaticus minorZygomatic bone, posterior to maxillary-zygomatic suture.Skin and muscle of the upper lip.Buccal branch of facial n.Elevates and everts the upper lip.

Summary of muscles of the tongue

Genioglossus, hyoglossus, chondroglossus, styloglossus, superior and inferior longitudinal muscles, transverse muscle, vertical muscle, palatoglossus. For details see table.

Summary of muscles of the soft palate and fauces

Palatine aponeurosis, levator veli palatine, tensor veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus. For details see table.

Summary of extraocular muscles

Superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae superioris, common tendinous ring. For details see table.

From A Dictionary of Dentistry in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Dentistry.



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