Malaysian intellectual and human rights activist. Born into a Hindu family. Actively campaigned on issues of human rights and intercivilizational dialogue. Detained by state security forces during the crackdown of 1987. Founder of Malaysian human rights NGO Aliran and president 1977–91; president of International Movement for a Just World beginning in 1991; deputy president of the National Justice Party (KeADILan) beginning in 1999. Author of Universalism of Islam (1979), Islamic Resurgence in Malaysia (1987), Human Rights and the New World Order (1993), and Alternative Politics for Asia: A Buddhist-Muslim Dialogue (1999). Awarded the Rockefeller Social Science Fellowship in Development Studies for Southeast Asia (1984–85) and the Harry J. Benda Prize for distinguished scholarship on Southeast Asia (1989).