A collection of 13 papyrus codices found in 1945–6 near Nag Hammadi (the ancient Chenoboskion) in Upper Egypt. Written in Coptic, they date from between the 3rd and 5th cents. ad and contain over 40 (mainly Gnostic) works, nearly all previously unknown. The MSS, which are a primary source for our knowledge of Gnosticism, are now all in the Coptic Museum at Cairo. They include the ‘Gospel of Truth’ (see Evangelium Veritatis) and the Gospel of Thomas.