Renaissance. Commonly refers to the revival of Arabic literature and culture in the Levant and Egypt from the mid-nineteenth century to World War I. Authors sought to revive classical forms of Arabic, develop language in ways appropriate to modern times, make compatriots aware of new ideas coming from Europe, and develop a common patriotism to transcend sectarian differences. This eventually developed into pan-Arab sentiment. The movement called for autonomy of Syria and Lebanon and recognition of Arabic as the official language there, and it published newspapers and periodicals. It began in Christian circles but was predominantly Muslim by the end of the nineteenth century. Nahdah laid the basis for the Arab national movement that followed World War I. In the twenty-first century the term often refers to the revival of Islam as the basis of sociopolitical life.