Iraqi Shii cleric. Leading theoretician of the 1905–11 Constitutional Revolution in Iran. Led Iraqi nationalists in an independence movement against the British. Depicted those opposing Reza Shah Pahlavi's rule as enemies of Islam, opening the door to the deposing of the Qajar dynasty. Wrote a famous treatise justifying constitutional government from a Shii perspective. Aimed to reconcile the impossibility of legitimate rule in the absence of the Hidden Imam with the practical need for a government promoting the well-being of the Shii community. Did not advocate administration of government by ulama, but supported their participation in Iranian politics, Islamization of constitutionalist principles, and certain principles of democracy.