The Eng. names of the longer notes are based upon the old Lat. names of the early Middle Ages. The earlier It. names are similar. The Fr. names stand alone as being purely descriptive of the appearances. The Ger. names are arithmetical, and the Amer. practically a trans. of them. The Amer. and Ger. names require no remembering, being logically descriptive of time‐values. They are undoubtedly the best, and the Amer. names are now largely adopted in the Commonwealth. See table on p. 522.