One of the most widespread and vigorous Sufi orders. Originated in Bukhara in the fourteenth century. Leading characteristics are strict adherence to Islamic law, sobriety in devotional practice that results in shunning of music and dance and preference for silent dhikr, and frequent tendency to political activity. Active in Afghan affairs until the formation of the first post-Communist administration in 1991. Prominent in the resistance to Russian conquest and its aftermath throughout Asia. Headed rebellions against Chinese rule in Xinjiang. Passively resistant to secularism in Turkey. Influence is strongest in Turkey and Kurdish lands. A number of its leaders have been important spiritual and intellectual teachers, but in the twenty-first century, the order has not produced any leaders with universal appeal and the capability of reinvigorating the order. Instead, groups varying in size, influence, and emphasis operate separately across the Islamic world, from the United States to Indonesia.