In psychoanalysis, a category of psychoneuroses that Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) distinguished from the transference neuroses. In an article ‘On Narcissism: An Introduction’ (1914, Standard Edition, XIV, pp. 73–102), he described its salient characteristic to be the turning of libido from external instinctual objects on to the ego, and he identified it with paraphrenia. The concept lost popularity among psychoanalysts after the Second World War. See also decathexis, narcissism, narcissistic personality disorder.