Egyptian feminist, Islamic modernist reformer, and writer. Protested male abuses of divorce and polygyny. Demanded that women be allowed to participate in congregational worship in mosques, study in all fields, enter all occupations and professions, and be permitted to develop themselves and contribute to the welfare of the ummah. Called for reform of the Muslim personal status code. Wrote under the pen name Bahithat al-Badiyyah (seeker of the desert).