Political movement calling for the liberation of Arabs and all Afro-Asian states colonized or dominated by Western powers, with Egypt playing a key leadership role. Influence grew as Gamal Abdel Nasser led opposition to the pro-Western Baghdad Pact (established in 1955 between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and England), bought Soviet arms, and declared neutrality in the Cold War and defiance of the old colonial powers. Most potent political force in the eastern Arab world in the 1960s. Declined after Egypt's defeat in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Essentially a secular pan-Arabist movement, although it never stood for total separation of religion and state or establishment of a secular republic. Proclaimed the necessity of socialism for economic security and equality of opportunity.