national anthem

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Songs or hymns adopted by certain nations to be perf. on official occasions and to represent them at int. events, e.g. when a competitor is awarded a medal in the Olympic Games. They are the mus. equivalent of the flag. Among the best‐known (with author and composer, where both are known) are: Australia (since 1974): Advance Australia Fair (P. D. McCormick). Austria (since 1947): Land der Berge, Land am Strome (Preradovi; mus. doubtfully attrib. Mozart); (before 1919): Gott erhalte unsern Kaiser (Haschka; J. Haydn, 1797. In 1919 a new anthem, Deutsch‐Österreich, du herrliches Land (Renner; Kienzl, 1919) was chosen, but abandoned in 1929 when Haydn's tune was reinstated until 1947). Belgium: Après des Siècles d'esclavage, known as La Brabançonne (Dechet, whose text was replaced 1860 by another by Rogier; F. van Campenhout, 1830). Chile: Dulce patria, recibe los votos (Pintado, rev. 1847 by Lillo; Carnicer, 1828). China: March on, brave people of our nation (collective text; Nie Erh, 1932). Czechoslovakia: 1 (Czech): Kde domov müj? ‘Where is my home?’ (Tyl; Skroup); 2 (Slovak): Nad Tatrousa blýska ‘On Tatra mountains lightning strikes’ (Matúška; trad.). Denmark: Kong Kristian (Ewald; ?Rogert, 1779). Finland: Oi maamme, Suomi synnyinmaa! ‘O our native land’ (Runeberg; Pacius, 1848). France: Allons, enfants de la patrie, known as La Marseillaise (R. de Lisle 1792, words and mus.). Germany (before 1945): Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles (Fallersleben; J. Haydn); since 1950, Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit (to Haydn's tune). Great Britain: God Save the King (Queen). Greece: Segnorizo apo tin Kopsi (Solomós; Mantzaros, 1828). Ireland: Sinne Fianna Faïl at' fé gheall ag Eirinn ‘Soldiers are we whose lives are pledges to Ireland’ (Heaney; Kearney). Israel: Kol od balevav (known as Hatikvah (N. H. Imber, 1878; mus. trad., arr. S. Cohen). Italy: Fratelli d'Italia (Mameli; Novaro, 1847). Netherlands: Wilhelmus von Nassouwe (Marnix, c.1570; mus. in A. Valerius, Gedenck‐Clanck, 1626). Norway: Ja, vi elsker dette landet (Bjørnson, 1864; Nordraak). Poland: Jeszcze Polska nie zgineta (Wybicki; trad.). Russia: Patriotic Song (Glinka, arr. A. Petrov). USA: The Star‐spangled Banner (F. Scott Key, 1814; mus. by John Stafford Smith comp. for To Anacreon in Heaven).

Subjects: Music.

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