Epipalaeolithic communities of the Levant in the period 10 500 bc to 8000 bc, named after the site of Wadi en‐Natuf in Palestine. Natufian groups seem to have been settled or semi‐settled hunter‐gatherers and occupied a range of sites, including caves. Some larger settlements, such as the first phase at Jericho, reveal what appear to be permanent architectural constructions, food‐storage facilities, and fixed food‐processing equipment such as seed pounders. Cemeteries suggest a degree of social differentiation. Material culture includes geometric microliths, bone points and speartips, fish‐hooks, and a range of items such as sickle‐blades, pestles and mortars, and grindstones that suggest the harvesting of cereals. There is, however, no evidence for the deliberate planting of crops, nor is there any evidence for the domestication of livestock.