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(India) A radical Indian Communist terrorist organization, named after the Naxalbari area in the Himalayan foothills of West Bengal, where it first began its violent campaigns in 1967. Under the leadership of Charu Mazumdar, its members had broken away from the Communist Party of India (Marxist). In 1969, they officially formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist‐Leninist). This CPI (M‐L) first organized armed risings of landless agricultural labourers out to kill landowners and government officials, especially in eastern India. Later it developed into an urban guerrilla movement, especially in Calcutta. Its programme of strikes, riots, and murders reached a peak in 1971, but it declined after Mazumdar's capture and death in 1972. The CPI (M‐L) split into several factions, some of which adopted a policy of participating in constitutional politics, although a number of splinter groups continued to enact sporadic violent campaigns.

Subjects: World History — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

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