(c. 630—562 bc)

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The most famous of the kings of Babylon, the second of that name, ruling from c.605 bc through to 562 bc. His father, Nabopolassar, ejected the Assyrians to restore Babylon's independence and to found the Neo‐Babylonian kingdom. During his father's reign Nebuchadnezzar defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish in 605 bc, thus giving him control over a wide area of western Asia. It was also the start of intensified conflict between Babylonia and Egypt that eventually led to the defeat of Nebuchadnezzar's army three years later. This defeat may have stimulated further trouble for Nebuchadnezzar in the form of a revolt in Judaea, which was finally crushed in 597 bc, when Zedekiah was installed as a puppet king. Further revolts over the following decade led Nebuchadnezzar to lay siege to Jerusalem, finally destroying it in 586 bc. Nebuchadnezzar was responsible for building a great palace and the hanging gardens in Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Subjects: Archaeology.

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