(b. 1892, d. 12 Nov. 1956).
Prime Minister of Spain 1937–9 Born on the Canary Islands, he studied in Germany (1914–17) and became professor of physiology at the University of Madrid. He became a moderate socialist parliamentary Deputy in 1931, but his impact remained relatively modest until he became Minister of Finance in Largo Caballero's Popular Front government. He increasingly resisted Largo Caballero's policies, and on 18 May 1937 took over the government himself. To reduce domestic opposition to the regime, he ended the attempt to bring about a social revolution, focusing on the resistance to Franco in the Spanish Civil War instead. Nevertheless, as his Republican forces were defeated by Franco, he came to rely increasingly on the Soviet Union. He inspired many with his anti‐Fascist passion, though this also closed him to the possibilities of a negotiated peace. He died in exile in Paris.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).