Newcastle was one of the leading royalist commanders during the Civil War. A man of vast estates in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, he made spectacular progress up the peerage ladder, moving from viscount (1620), to earl (1628), marquis (1643), and finally duke in 1665. He was an almost automatic choice as commander in the north when war came and had success at Adwalton Moor in June 1643. In 1644 he was forced back to York by the advance of the Scottish army and Rupert's attempt at relief ended in the shattering defeat of Marston Moor. Newcastle left at once for the continent and did not return until the Restoration.
Subjects: British History.