The collective title given to an important group of American literary and cultural critics active in the period from the late 1930s to the 1960s, and associated with the periodical Partisan Review. The group was inspired by the example of the older critic Edmund Wilson, whose critical outlook in The Triple Thinkers (1938) and other works synthesized a semi-Marxist view of culture with sympathy for the achievements of literary modernism and some interest in the implications of Freudian psychoanalysis. This combination of liberal-leftist (and emphatically anti-Stalinist) politics with concern for literature in its social and psychological contexts became characteristic of the group. The principal figures in its early phase were Lionel Trilling, Philip Rahv, Delmore Schwartz, Alfred Kazin, Richard Chase, Diana Trilling, Mary McCarthy, and Dwight McDonald; they were joined at later stages by Irving Howe, Richard Poirier, Elizabeth Hardwick, Leslie Fiedler, and Susan Sontag, among others. Of these, Schwartz, McCarthy, and Hardwick are better known for their creative than for their critical works. Several of the Partisan Review critics made important contributions to the understanding of the American literary tradition in particular, as in Kazin's On Native Grounds (1942), Rahv's essay ‘Paleface and Redskin’ (1949), Chase's The American Novel and its Tradition (1957), and Fiedler's Love and Death in the American Novel (1960). Major representative works of the group include Trilling's The Liberal Imagination (1951) and Rahv's The Myth and the Powerhouse (1965). For a fuller account, consult Alexander Bloom, Prodigal Sons: The New York Intellectuals and their World (1986).