Eighteenth-century Chinese revivalist Muslim group led by Ma Mingxin. Located in Gansu Province. Called for reform of local religious practices via the rejection of compromises with local customs and an emphasis on distinctive Muslim practices. Influenced by the Naqshbandi tariqah. Broke with the Old Sect, resulting in revolts in 1781 and 1783. Proscribed after 1783 but remained active. Participated in a major rebellion led by Ma Hualong in 1862, leading to Muslim control over many cities in the province. The revolt, which was crushed in 1873, was a combination of vigorous activism with a return to the fundamentals of Islam and rejection of the previous policy of adaptationism, and represented the assertion of a distinctive identity from within the context of Chinese culture.