Marshal of France. The most famous and popular of Napoleon's generals, he served Napoleon in the brilliant campaigns of 1794 and 1795, commanded the army of the Rhine (1799), and conquered the Tyrol. His support was decisive in Napoleon's victory at Friedland (14 June 1807). In the retreat from Moscow (1812) he commanded the defence of the grande armée against the Russians and was created Prince of Moscow by Napoleon in 1813. After the Battle of Leipzig he urged Napoleon to abdicate (1814). He agreed to take the oath of allegiance to the restored monarchy, but, when sent to check Napoleon's advance (1815) during the Hundred Days, he joined him instead, fighting heroically at Waterloo, after which he was tried for treason and shot.
Subjects: World History — Military History.