German Protestant churchman. A U-boat commander in World War I, he became a priest in 1924. In 1933 he founded the Pastors' Emergency League to help combat rising discrimination against Christians of Jewish background. His courageous opposition to the Nazification of the Church led to his confinement in a concentration camp (1938–45). A pacifist, he became President of the World Council of Churches (1961–68).
Subjects: Religion — History.