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According to Dharmaśāstra, and orthodox Vedic commentators such as Śaṅkara, the attitude of withdrawal from engagement (pravṛtti) or involvement with the world, cultivated by the renouncer who is intent upon liberation. Nivṛtti and pravṛtti are regarded as complementary aspects of Vedic dharma, the former defining the stance of the celibate renouncer, who has abandoned ritual and economic activity to cultivate knowledge, the latter that of the married ritualist whose actions are motivated by specific desires, and who is still repaying his debts.

Subjects: Hinduism.

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