(NIV) mechanical assistance with breathing that does not require the insertion of an endotracheal tube (see intubation). In noninvasive intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) air is blown into the lungs through a close-fitting mask: designs range from helmet-like devices to nasal cushions and full-face or nasal masks (see also Nippy). A ventilator then applies positive pressure to the mask in a cyclical fashion. The technique simplifies the process of ventilation in respiratory failure and reduces or eliminates the need for paralysis and anaesthesia, which are required for endotracheal intubation. See also BiPAP, continuous positive airways pressure.
Negative-pressure ventilation involves the use of devices that draw air into and out of the lungs noninvasively by applying negative pressure in a cyclical way (see ventilator).
Subjects: Medicine and Health.