1st earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy

(1341—1408) magnate and rebel

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John (1167—1216) king of England, and lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou

John of Gaunt (1340—1399) prince and steward of England

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Richard Scrope (c. 1350—1405) archbishop of York

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Percy's military career began in France under Dukes Henry and John of Lancaster; he remained a political associate of the latter, John of Gaunt. He was created earl at Richard II's coronation in 1377. Gaunt's appointment as lieutenant in the marches led to a breach, from which Northumberland emerged as sole warden in both marches in 1384. He and his son Hotspur won both wardenships in 1399 as reward for their key role in Henry IV's usurpation. Fearing this regional hegemony was threatened, they revolted in 1403. Prevented from joining Hotspur, Northumberland survived to instigate Archbishop Scrope's rebellion; on its collapse he fled to Scotland and was deemed forfeit. He was killed at Bramham Moor (Yorks.).

Subjects: British History.

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