German OT scholar. His earlier work was concerned with the social and political structure of early Israel. He also engaged in traditio-historical criticism. Of special importance was his contention that Jos., Jgs., 1 and 2 Sam., and 1 and 2 Kgs. form a ‘Deuteronomistic History’, to which the bulk of Deut. is a preamble rather than the concluding section of the Pentateuch.