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nuclear bomb

nuclear bomb

nuclear bomb

Re: Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses From Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests

Response: Re: Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses From Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests

Thyroid Cancer Rates and 131I Doses From Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests

Book Review: Bonn and the Bomb: German Politics and the Nuclear Option

After the Bomb: Civil Defence and Nuclear War in Britain, 1945–68. By Matthew Grant.

Vincent J. Intondi. African Americans against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement.

David James Gill. Britain and the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy, 1964–1970.

Book Review: Bonn and the Bomb: German Politics and the Nuclear Option

After the Bomb: Civil Defence and Nuclear War in Britain, 1945–68, by Matthew Grant

Spying on the Nuclear Bear: Anglo-American Intelligence and the Soviet Bomb

‘The Hindu Bomb’: Nuclear Nationalism in The Last Jet-Engine Laugh

African Americans against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement

Michael S. Goodman. Spying on the Nuclear Bear: Anglo-American Intelligenceand the Soviet Bomb. (Stanford Nuclear Age Series.) Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. 2007. Pp.xv, 295. $50.00.

Dean W. Kohlhoff. Amchitka and the Bomb: Nuclear Testing in Alaska. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 2002. Pp. x, 166. $25.00

The Distance Effect on the Individual Exposures Evaluated from the Soviet Nuclear Bomb Test in 1954 at Totskoye Test Site in 1954

The Struggle against the Bomb. Vol. 2: Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1954–1970. By LawrenceS. Wittner. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. xvi, 641 pp. $65.00, ISBN 0-8047-2918-2.)

 

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The first and only nuclear bomb to have been used in warfare was the atomic bomb, which was developed in the Manhattan Project, and exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945 respectively. It worked through fission of highly enriched uranium, though since then plutonium has also been used. It was the first weapon of mass destruction. Through their explosive power and heat they killed 150,000 people, while even more suffered from radiation subsequently. Immediately, the atomic bomb became a symbol, if not a fact, of superpower status, as the Soviet Union developed its bomb by 1949, the UK by 1952, France by 1960, and China by 1962. Since then, India and Pakistan, Israel, and North Korea have also achieved nuclear capability.

An even more powerful nuclear weapon was developed in the hydrogen bomb, based on destruction through nuclear fusion. It was acquired by the USA in 1952, the USSR in 1953, the UK (1957), China (1967), and France (1968). Finally, an even more potent weapon was created in the enhanced hydrogen bomb, developed by the USA in 1977, which used a beryl coating to vastly expand its radioactive power.

The nuclear bomb in its various forms shaped politics throughout the Cold War era (1948–91). As the USA and USSR especially developed the ability to destroy the earth several times over, an all‐out war became too costly to contemplate. Both countries came close to a nuclear war in the Cuban missile crisis, but thereafter promoted nuclear disarmament. The nuclear bomb shaped the political and social culture of postwar generations, articulated by organizations like CND and Pugwash, as well as individuals like Einstein and Russell, as nuclear weapons became the epitome of the dangers of scientific research in particular, and ‘modernity’ in general.

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — Science and Mathematics.


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