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The basal series (1.1–1.96 Ma ago) in the Quaternary of New Zealand, underlain by the Pliocene, overlain by the Castlecliffian Series, and roughly contemporaneous with most of the Calabrian Stage. Some authors consider the Nukumaruan to overlie the Mangapanian Stage within the uppermost Pliocene and thereby to include the Tertiary/Quaternary boundary.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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