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Nuremberg Code


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The code of conduct for medical research involving human subjects that was composed after the Nuremberg trials of the Nazi war criminals in 1946–47. The central feature of the Nuremberg Code is contained in its first clause, which states that “The voluntary consent of the subject is absolutely essential.” Other clauses deal with details, proxy consent, etc. See also Helsinki, Declaration of, and informed consent. The Nuremberg (Nürnberg) Code is frequently displayed in codes and guidelines on ethical conduct of research involving human subjects. It can be seen, for instance, at http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html.

Subjects: International Law — Public Health and Epidemiology.


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