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Nutrition and energy


'Nutrition and energy' can also refer to...

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Table 6.1 Normal body compositon (of a 70kg man)

Constituentkg

Water42

Intracellular28

Extracellular14

Solids

Fat12.6

Protein11.2

Intracellular (muscle)8.4

Extracellular (collagen)2.8

Minerals3.8

Carbohydrate0.4

Table 6.2 Daily requirements for energy

AgeEnergy

kcal/kgkJ/kg

Infant3 months120500

Child4–6 years90380

Adolescent

Male13–25 years57240

Female13–25 years50210

Adult

Male46190

Female40170

Table 6.3 Energy expenditure of a normal adult

TimekcalkJTotal range kcal (kJ)

Male

Bed8h5002100

Non-occupational activities8h700–15003000–6300

Work8h

Light110046002300–3100

(9660–13000)

Very heavy2400101003600–4400

(15100–18500)

Female

Bed8h4201760

Non-occupational activities8h580–9802430–4120

Work8h

Light80033601800–2200

(7560–9240)

Heavy140058802400–2700

(10100–11340)

Table 6.4 Macronutrient stores in relation to daily intake

MacronutrientTotal amount in bodyEnergy equivalentDays' supply if the only energy sourceDaily intake g% of store

Carbohydrate0.6kg8.5MJ<130060

Free glucose12g

Liver glycogen100g

Muscle glycogen500g

Fat (triacylglycerol)12–18kg550MJ561000.7

Circulating in plasma5g

Stored in adipocytes12–18kg

Protein and amino acids12kg200MJ1000.8

Free amino acids100g

Protein12kg

Table 6.5 Recommended daily amounts of some nutrients for population groups

Age range (years)Occupational categoryThiamin (mg)Riboflavin (mg)Nicotinic acid equivalentsa (mg)Total folate (μg)Ascorbic acid (mg)Vitamin A retinol equivalentsb (μg)Vitamin D cholecalciferol (μg)Calcium (mg)Iron (mg)

boys

Under 10.30.4550204507.56006

10.50.6710020300106007

20.60.7810020300106007

3–40.60.8910020300106008

5–60.70.91020020300†60010

7–80.81.01120020400†60010

9–110.91.21420025575†70012

12–141.11.41630025725†70012

15–171.21.71930030750†60012

girls

Under 10.30.4550204507.56006

10.40.6710020300106007

20.50.7810020300106007

3–40.60.8910020300106008

5–60.70.91020020300†60010

7–80.81.01120020400†60010

9–110.81.21430025575†70012‡

12–140.91.41630025725†70012‡

15–170.91.71930030750†60012‡

men

18–34sedentary1.01.61830030750†50010

Moderately active1.21.61830030750†50010

Very active1.31.61830030750†50010

35–64sedentary1.01.61830030750†50010

Moderately active1.11.61830030750†50010

Very active1.31.61830030750†50010

65+sedentary0.9–1.01.61830030750†50010

women

18–54most occupations0.91.31530030750†50012‡

55+sedentary0.7–0.81.31530030750†50010

Pregnancy1.01.61850060750101200*13

Lactation1.11.82140060120010120015

Notes

a 1 nicotinic acid equivalent = 1mg available nicotinic acid or 60mg tryptophan.

b 1 retinol equivalent = 1μg retinol of 6μg β-carotene or 12μg other biologically active carotenoids.

† No dietary sources may be necessary for children and adults who are sufficiently exposed to sunlight but during the winter children and adolescents should receive 10μg (400 i.u.) daily by supplementation.

‡ This intake may not be sufficient for 10% of girls and women with large menstrual losses.

* For the third trimester only.

From A Dictionary of Nursing in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.



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