A group of Russian artists, most of them pupils of Rodchenko and Tatlin in the Moscow Vkhutemas, who experimented with spatial constructions and the properties of industrial materials. In 1920 Obmokhu held an exhibition of work by thirteen students of Vkhutemas. These were not socially useful designs, but open spatial constructions making dynamic use of the spiral form. A year later, however, most of these artists aligned themselves with the Constructivists, signed a manifesto condemning non-useful (i.e. ‘fine’) art as a ‘speculative activity’, and thereafter devoted themselves to theatrical or industrial design. Prominent among them were the Stenberg brothers and Konstantin (or Kasimir) Medunetsky (1899–c.1935), one of whose constructions, from 1919, was illustrated in Circle in 1937.