Dilated veins in the lower oesophagus due to portal hypertension. These may rupture and bleed, resulting in haematemesis; bleeding is usually serious and life-threatening. Bleeding may be arrested by endoscopic therapy (either injection of sclerosants or application of rubber bands). If this fails to stop the bleeding, a compression balloon (e.g. a Sengstaken tube) may be inserted. Intravenous infusions (e.g. of terlipressin or octreotide) may be used as an additional measure.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.